The European Southern Observatory’s Muse instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile captured this view of galaxies in a region of sky included in the Hubble Space Telescope’s Ultra Deep Field survey. Muse discovered 72 never-before-seen galaxies in the region.
Credit: ESO/MUSE HUDF Collaboration
Astronomers have found 72 potential galaxies hiding in plain sight inside a vast patch of the sky previously observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
The discovery not only gives astronomers new targets to study, but also will aid studies of star motion and formation and other properties of old galaxies, the researchers said.
The new study was performed by the MUSE instrument on the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope in Chile.
Astronomers discovered the newfound galaxies while measuring the distances and properties of 1,600 galaxies captured by the Hubble Space Telescope during its Ultra Deep Field survey.
The 72 newfound galaxies shine in Lyman-alpha light, which is a particular wavelength of ultraviolet light.
Because the galaxies are receding from us, their wavelength was stretched from ultraviolet to visible, or near-infrared.
The discoveries were made in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, which is a tiny region of the sky in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace).
The Hubble data were originally obtained in 2004, two years after NASA space shuttle astronauts visited the space telescope to install the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and perform other needed maintenance.
Using ACS, Hubble peered at a small region of the sky and found galaxies that had formed less than 1 billion years after the Big Bang, which kick-started the universe (the Big Bang took place about 13.8 billion years ago, making those galaxies more than 12.8 billion years old.) MUSE can do something that Hubble can’t – it splits up the light from every point in the image into its component colors to create a spectrum.
This allows us to measure the distance, colors and other properties of all the galaxies we can see – including some that are invisible to Hubble itself,” stated Roland Bacon, who led the survey team and is also an astrophysicist at the Center for Astrophysics Research of Lyon at the University of Lyon in France.
Credit: NASA, ESA, R. Ellis (Caltech), and the HUDF 2012 Team
MUSE is a spectroscopic instrument, meaning it measures light emitted, absorbed or scattered in space.
Using spectroscopy, astronomers can learn about stars, galaxies and other objects, including properties such as how fast the objects are moving and what elements they are made of.
MUSE recently underwent an adaptive-optics upgrade, which could help with future studies of old galaxies, Roland Bacon added.
The new work resulted in 10 science papers that will be published in a special issue of the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.
“MUSE has the unique ability to extract information about some of the earliest galaxies in the universe – even in a part of the sky that is already very well-studied,” stated Jarle Brinchmann, lead author of one of the papers.
“We learn things about these galaxies that [it] is only possible [to learn] with spectroscopy, such as chemical content and internal motions – not galaxy by galaxy, but all at once for all the galaxies,” added Brinchmann, who is an astronomer at Leiden University in the Netherlands and the Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences at CAUP (Center for Astrophysics of the University of Porto) in Portugal.
This compound image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field region depicts glowing halos of gas around galaxies discovered by the Muse instrument on the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope.
Credit: ESO/MUSE HUDF team
Astronomers also found hydrogen halos in old galaxies, which could provide more information about how material leaves and enters galaxies formed early in the universe’s history.
Future research directions could include looking at star formation, galactic winds, galaxy mergers or even a phenomenon known as cosmic reionization.
That phenomenon explains how light returned to a dark universe billions of years ago.
“First light” in the universe was roughly 380,000 years after the Big Bang, when the cosmos cooled down and fundamental particles were able to combine into atoms.
However, once these combinations ceased, the universe entered a dark age, because there was no other light available – the first stars weren’t shining yet.
Reionization occurred between 150 million years and 650 million years after the Big Bang, when the first stars and galaxies were formed from collapsing groups of gas, producing light in the universe again.
Aleister Crowley may have died in 1947, but his influence is still very much felt by the magician of today.
Don’t be fooled into thinking that the magician of today is a slavish follower or member of some mind bending cult. Crowley’s word was Thelema (The Crowleian pronunciation is Theh-LEE-mah, the accent bewatching on the vowel of the second syllable, Greek speakers ay the accent should be on the vowel of the first syllable for it to be pronounced right….ThEH-lee-mah) – which means free will.
Those who choose to follow this magical path aim to de-condition themselves, to develop independence of spirit and ultimately to become their very own self. One of the many attractions of Crowley’s type of Magick, was this advice to follow one’s own way and create your own life style. You don’t need a priest or a judge to tell you how to act – work it out for yourelf.
As part of the process of developing self knowledge, Crowley advocated the practice of Magick. This he defined as,
the science and art of causing change in conformity with will …
The history of magick is the history of human beings. Many of the things that are now labelled ’culture’ began as experiments in ritual and magick via drama, music and poetry etc. Magick has played a role in many key moments of our history, for example during the fourteenth century, it was the philosophy of the Renaissance. In our own time, many modern art movements have been driven by magical ideas, for instance, the first abstract painting was made by the Theosophist Kandinsky.
There are indeed many examples of this which leads one to believe that at the very minimum, more experimentation into the realities of Magick as a practice should at least be considered.
At least you’ll have a fun hobby.
The Egyptian pyramids are in the exact shape of the Orion constellation (luminance reflected in the size of each pyramid). The central (once hidden and secret) shafts of the great pyramid all point to the constellations Orion, Sirius, Draco, and Leo. You might think that the Sphinx is only 6000 some odd years old, but you would be wrong
Scientists now know that it’s about 12,500 years old according to the physical wear of the rocks themselves from thousands of years of heavy rain fall weathering. (Studies by John Anthony West and Prof. Robert Shock, Boston University) For the last few thousands of years, Egypt has been DRY, so how did the rocks become SO heavily weathered by RAIN WATER (not wind erosion)? If you go back to 10,500 BC, you have your answers.
If you follow the procession of the Earth (the slow wobble of the Earth over thousands of years around the North Star) you will notice that the Sphinx points right to the constellation Leo on the SPRING EQUINOX of every year back around 12,500 years ago (10,500 BC)
These ancient sites have been rebuilt MANY times, following the ancient blueprint of the original creators of these monuments, making them VERY ancient indeed. Today the Sphinx currently points to Taurus, the Bull, every spring equinox.
So why is the Sphinx not a bull? Because it was most likely built in 10,500 BC, not 4-6000 years ago. Duh.
The recovered records place the location of the Anunnaki laboratory where the first humans were said to have been literally produced in central Africa. Indeed, Mitochondria DNA places the first homo-sapiens sapiens in the same time frame and location; in east central Africa just above their gold mines.
In a lecture at New York University in 1993, Sitchin further outlined his theory about human origins and our link with the Anunnaki by saying, “Ancient history and legend around the world, as well as the Bible, attest to the fact that there were once giants in the earth; men of awesome dimensions, bulk and height. In Genesis 6:1-4 we read,
“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose…
There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, that they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown”.
The Book of Enoch, an ancient text discovered in Ethiopia in 1773 (and because of references to it in ancient Hebrew writings considered to be among the oldest manuscripts in existence) speaks about 200 angels who came down to earth to mate with the “daughters of man“.
Led by a high angel named Azazyel, the angels produced giant men. During this strange occupation, Enoch writes that humans were taught to make swords, knives, shields, breastplates, mirrors, jewelry, paints and dyes, make cosmetics, and use valuable stones.
The people also learned sorcery, use of roots and plants for medicine, astronomy, astrology and other “signs”, and the importance of the motion of the celestial bodies.
File this under “Interesting Things I Learned After School.”